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  1. #1
    BPnet Veteran cassandra's Avatar
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    Exclamation Glass tank setup

    By request, posting the Vivarium Setup Guide my fiance Rick wrote. Sorry we still have no pictures to go with this...someday.

    Housing and Caring for a Ball Python in a Glass Vivarium
    post 1 of 4

    This is a guide on how to set up a glass vivarium for a Ball Python and the care and maintenance required.

    Generally, a glass vivarium is selected as an enclosure due to aesthetic reasons. The owner of the snake wishes to provide an environment that is both suitable for caring for the snake given its environmental and behavioral requirements, and is pleasing to look at in their home.

    Given all the variables that will be covered here, the glass vivarium will cost more to set up and require more maintenance than the the other popular methods (keeping your snake in a plastic tub for example).

    This document includes:
    Environmental and behavioral factors to be taken into consideration
    Shopping list
    Building the enclosure
    Maintenance and Ongoing Husbandry
    Special considerations



    Environmental and behavioral factors to be taken into consideration
    1. Temperature.

    You must provide a stable temperature gradient in your enclosure. These temperatures are very important due to the biology of the snake. Snakes are cold-blooded animals, their body temperature is entirely dependent on the environment they are in. Correct temperatures are required to (a) keep the animal alive, (b) prevent respiratory illness, (c) aid in proper digestion of a meal. Temperatures that are too high are just as dangerous to a snake as temperatures that are too low. Your snake will regulate its body temperature as required by moving between the warm and cool areas in its enclosure.

    There are three temperature 'zones' you need to pay close attention to in your enclosure, they are:

    A) Warm side belly temperature. This is the temperature of substrate (bedding) on the warm side of the enclosure.

    B) Cool side belly temperature. This is the temperature of the substrate on the cool side of the enclosure.

    C) Ambient air temperature in the enclosure.

    The temperatures you require in these three zones are as follows:
    Cool side = 82F.
    Warm side = 92F.
    Ambient air = 78-85F.

    How you measure these temperatures is also important. You can measure the ambient air temperature using a 'stick on' thermometer. Use a digital thermometer and place it close to where the snake will spend most of it's time. To measure the belly temps on the warm and cool sides, you will need either a thermometer with a probe, or an infrared temperature gun. Dial or strip type thermometers are not accurate and should not be used.

    2a. Humidity.

    Ball Pythons require the humidity in the enclosure to be in the 50-60% range at all times. During shedding, this should be raised to 80% for the duration of the shed. Use a digital humidity gauge placed close to where the snake will spend most of its time. We prefer a digital combined thermometer and humidity gauge.

    2b. Drinking water.

    You must provide a source of fresh, clean water in the enclosure. This must be changed daily! Your snake will use it for drinking, soaking and perhaps as a toilet. It also will be the primary source of humidity in your enclosure. Maintain your snakes water and the bowl to a condition where you would be happy drinking from it.

    3. Security.

    Ball Pythons require enclosed areas out of view to hide and sleep in. They can be private and secretive animals and providing such suitable places is required in maintaining the mental health of your snake. You will need to provide hides on both the warm and cool side of your enclosure. We highly recommend that you use identical hides on both sides, this way the snake will not have to choose between thermoregulating and the hide it finds most secure.

    Glass vivariums are open on all sides. To allow your snake to feel more secure in its environment we recommend you cover over all but the front glass in some fashion.

    Place your vivarium in a quiet location which is not in a major traffic area in your home. Having people constantly passing by the vivarium will stress your snake.

    4. Other concerns.

    Your snake will require rough to the touch objects to be in the enclosure to aid it during shedding. It will rub against these to aid in sloughing off the old skin.

    Substrate has many functions. It keeps your snake away from potentially damaging heat sources, it holds moisture to aid in keeping your humidity level up, it holds and dissipates heat and it will also breed and store bacteria. It is very important to renew the substrate on a regular basis.

    Live plants are not recommended for placing in your vivarium. The soil and moisture required for the plant are a breeding ground for bacteria. Use plastic plants in your vivarium. You snake will climb in them, and plastic plants are not damaged by this activity as live ones are. You may wish to place branches or other natural items in your vivarium. It is very important that these are sterilized and have any sharp areas removed before putting them in. Remove all bark from wood and branches, file down any sharp rocks etc. Sterilize them by baking in the oven if required. Exercise extreme care in baking flammable wooden items.

    You may wish to place other "interesting" objects in your vivarium, we recommend against this. If you must put something in there, give it the same consideration as you would with natural items as described above.

    Ball Pythons do not require any special lighting requirements, however bear in mind that they are nocturnal creatures. To this end, we do provide a consistent day / night cycle, both daylight and moonlight. This is optional.

    If the above it taken into careful consideration the end result will be an approximation of three square feet of West Africa in your living room. A suitable environment for your Ball Python, and an aesthetically pleasing piece of furniture for your home where you can enjoy viewing your snake.

    (cont'd on next post)
    Last edited by cassandra; 07-12-2006 at 03:40 PM.
    0.1 ball python (Cleo), 0.1 surinam bcc (Carmen)
    1.0 sunglow motley corn (Jenson), 1.0 albino burmese (Lourdes)
    1.0 cat (Nicky), some mooses and ratters, 1.0 hubby (Rick)

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  3. #2
    BPnet Veteran cassandra's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup...

    Housing and Caring for a Ball Python in a Glass Vivarium
    post page 2 of 4

    Shopping list
    From this point on we will be describing equipment, including brands, that we use for our Ball Python enclosure. There are, of course, other suitable variants of what we use, but you will be looking for the equivalent (or better) of what is described here.

    I am known for "overkill" in my own specifications and requirements - you can house a Ball Python with less equipment and cost, but personally I would rather err on the side of caution and overkill. A Ball Python has a life expectancy of 20+ years, you should treat them with all the respect and care that such a wonderful animal deserves.

    All prices listed below are rough ball park figures (estimated on the high side). They will vary depending on your local suppliers, choice of mail order, and how hard you look for a bargain.

    Quantity 1. 20L (20 gallon, long) glass vivarium. $50.

    These measure 30" x 12" x 12". You can house a Ball Python up to 42" in length in a 20L.

    The calculation is: length + width = maximum snake length.

    Depending on your particular Ball Python it could spend its entire life in such an enclosure, or you may need to upgrade to a larger one in the future. We like Critter Cages as they have a very secure top (snap clips + pin) and are built to a good standard. It also has cut-outs along the top molding to allow you to run wires for the thermometer probes into the enclosure without interfering with the lid locking mechanism.

    Quantity 2. Under Tank Heating pads (UTH's). $20 each.

    We like Zoo Med brand UTH's. They cost a little more than other brands but are built to a standard which appears more durable. They are readily available at most reptile pet stores and extensively online.

    Quantity 1. Ceramic Heat Emitter (CHE). $20.

    These are more expensive than heat bulbs, but have the advantage of lasting much longer and do not damage easily. You can break a regular heat bulb by knocking it, the filaments get brittle due to the high heat outputs. Additionally they do not emit light so will not interfere with a day/night cycle.

    Quantity 1 (each). Ceramic compatible clamp lamp and Lamp stand. $25.

    It is important to get a lamp fitting with a ceramic fitting rather than plastic. The Lamp stand is required if you have nothing directly above in a suitable location to clamp your CHE lamp to.

    Quantity 2. Thermostats. $30 each.

    I like to use the Alife thermostats, they are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. They are on/off type thermostats. A more optimal thermostat would be the proportional kind, however these can cost $100-200 each depending on brand and features.

    Quantity 1. Plexiglas with cut to lid size with a central hole for the CHE. $40.

    The mesh in the lid will allow too much heat and humidity to escape (the big problem with a glass vivarium). The plexiglas will cover the mesh except where you mount your CHE. We found a local plastics supplier (S&W Plastics) that cut us a piece to size including a square central hole.

    Alternatively, you can use a piece of heavy clear vinvyl with a hole cut, which may be available from craft or fabric stores.

    Quantity 1. Infrared Temp Gun. $20.

    I find these easier to use than a thermometer with a probe, quick and easy.

    Quantity 1. Combined digital temperature and humidity gauge. $15.

    The Flukers combined unit is a good, cheap, accurate choice.

    Quantity 2. Lamps. $10 each.

    You will need one for the day cycle and one for the night cycle.

    Quantity 1. Daylight bulb. $3.

    Should be available from your local pet store, arts and crafts store or hardware store.

    Quantity 1. Moonlight bulb. $8.

    We prefer the blue moonlight bulbs to the infrared bulbs. They provide just enough light at night to be able to see inside your vivarium without disturbing the snakes natural nocturnal environment. You need a store with reptile supplies, or mail order for these.

    Quantity 2. Lamp timers, or Quantity 1. Combined day/night timer power strip. $35.

    To operate your day / night cycle. Power Center manufactures a suitable power strip with four always-on outlets, two 'day' outlets and two 'night' outlets. A power strip such as this will be all you need for your vivarium power requirements.

    Quantity 2. Repti-Carpets. $5 each.

    These ensure that your snake will have great difficulty in reaching the bottom glass of the vivarium by burying though the substrate and getting into direct contact with the glass the UTH's are affixed to. They are washable mats, similar to astroturf but without the leaf blades.

    Quantity 2. Hides (identical). $10 each.

    We like ones that look like caves in rocks from our local PetCo.

    Quantity 1. Water bowl. $10

    Again we like the rocky natural looking ones.

    Quantity (variable). Plastic plants and branches. $10-50.

    From a pet store these can be expensive, you can find them cheaper at arts and craft stores.

    Quantity 1. Spray bottle. $2.

    For misting during sheds to raise humidity. Available at any store selling gardening or kitchen supplies.

    Quantity (variable). Cleaning supplies and disinfectant. $10.

    Orange based kitchen cleaners are a friendly cleaner to use, also we use Zoo Meds WipeOut line of disinfectant.

    Quantity (variable) Anti-bacterial hand cleanser. $2.

    Snakes can carry salmonella, a good antibacterial hand cleanser is recommended after handling your snake. Also if you have multiple snakes it can prevent you passing infections from one to the other during handling.

    Quantity 1. Bag of substrate. $5.

    We like shaved aspen. If you are having trouble keeping humidity up you can try cypress mulch, however for us, it raises the humidity too high.

    Quantity 1. Bag of spagnum moss. $4.

    During sheds some moistened spagnum moss in the vivarium provides a good slow release of humidity between mistings. Available cheaper at gardening centers than at pet stores. Always ensure you buy the natural untreated kind. We found a 170 cubic inch bag of Mosser Lee sphagnum moss at Lowe's.

    Quantity 1. Small plastic tub. $5.

    Use this to place your snake in while you are doing maintenance on your vivarium. Drill some air holes. A shoebox or sweater box size is all that is required.

    Quantity 1. Black-on-Black foam-core board. $4.

    This will be used to make the vivarium more private and secure for your snake, and it will also provide a small level of insulation. You can buy this from an arts and crafts supplier, or framing store.

    Quantity 1. Double sided tape. $4.

    We will be using this to secure insulation and thermostats etc. to your vivarium. This can be found in hardware stores.

    Quantity 1. Black electrical insulation tape. $2.

    General purpose black plastic tape for finishing and securing wires etc.


    Total for equipment and supplies: approximately $350-400 (Snake not included).

    cont'd on next post
    0.1 ball python (Cleo), 0.1 surinam bcc (Carmen)
    1.0 sunglow motley corn (Jenson), 1.0 albino burmese (Lourdes)
    1.0 cat (Nicky), some mooses and ratters, 1.0 hubby (Rick)

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  5. #3
    BPnet Veteran cassandra's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup...

    Housing and Caring for a Ball Python in a Glass Vivarium
    continued post 3 of 4

    Building the enclosure
    Before you start:

    Throughly clean the vivarium with cleaning products, then disinfectant. Allow to air so any residual fumes from the products used clear.

    Throughly clean and disinfect the hides, plants, branches, water bowl and anything else you will be putting into the enclosure. Ensure all are dry before introducing them to the vivarium.


    Construction

    1. Remove the backing and stick one UTH under each side of the vivarium, orient them so the wires face towards the back of the vivarium. Take care not to flex or bend the UTH's during this procedure as this can damage the internal structure and cause them to fail. Also take note that once affixed to the glass they cannot be removed without damaging them. Take care to place them in the right positions. All UTH's come with stick on plastic feet to raise the vivarium up 1/4", always use these to ensure you have a small air flow around the UHT's.

    2. Cut two sections of repti-carpet to fit the bottom of the vivarium. It must lay flat and must not wrinkle or bow.

    In order to place and position the thermostat probes you will need to cut two 1/2" holes, one at each end of the repti-carpet to thread the probe through, also a small cut at the edge to position the cable. Place one cut section into the bottom of your vivarium, store the remaining piece in a clean storage are for later use.

    3. Measure the sides and the back of the vivarium. Cut the black foam-core board to these sizes. Use the double-sided tape to affix the sections to the outside of the vivarium. This makes the enclosure more secure and private for your snake.

    4. Use the black electrical tape to seal around the foam-core board. Take your time and do this neatly and carefully. You have just created a primitive air-gap insulation around three sides of your vivarium.

    5. Using the double-sided tape affix both thermostats to the side of the enclosure, directly sticking them to the foam-core.

    6. Position the probes from the thermostats in the vivarium. Thread them through the repti-carpet as shown below, run the wires up the back of the vivarium passing though the cuts outs on the top back edge of the vivarium. Secure the wire to the back of the vivarium (on the outside) using the black electrical tape. NOTE: Never use any kind of tape within the vivarium. Removing tape from a snake can damage their scales and skin.

    7. Evenly place 1/2" of substrate into the bottom of the vivarium.

    8. Fit the cut Plexiglas into the mesh top of the vivarium.

    9. Plug in the thermostats and set one to 82F and the other to 92F.

    10. Place one hide directly over the cool side UTH, and one hide directly over the warm side UTH. Fill the water bowl (we use filtered tap water) ensuring that it is not so full that if your snake decides to soak that it will overflow. Place the water bowl in the center of the vivarium.

    11. Arrange any other vivarium furniture then affix the ambient thermometer/humidity gauge in the vivarium (I prefer to place it close to the warm hide). Place it in a location that is easy for you to read.

    12. Put the lid/plexiglass into place. Check that your thermostat wires are located correctly in the cut outs and that they are not crimped by the lid, or that the lid cannot close fully because of them. Ensure that the locking mechanisms (clips and pins) are functioning correctly.

    13. Assemble the lamp stand. Put the CHE into the clip lamp and clamp the assembly to the lamp stand. Position the CHE so it is directly over the hole in the plexiglas about 1/2" above the mesh. Plug the CHE into the warm side thermostat. I find this keeps the ambient air temperature high enough, without drying out the air too much lowering humidity.

    14. Place the daylight bulb in one lamp and the moonlight bulb in the other and position both above the vivarium. Put these on the timer(s) so you have 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of moonlight. Ensure you have NOT put the thermostats on any timer controlled outlets.

    15. Leave the enclosure alone for a day to get up the normal operating temperatures and humidity levels. Check and confirm that your temperatures and humidity are within acceptable ranges. You should have a reading of approximately 80F on the ambient air, and 55-65% humidity. Remove the hides and use the infra-red temp gun (or thermometer with probe) to measure the substrate under each, you should have 82F on the cool side and 92F on the warm side. If the temperatures are not correct then you will need to adjust the thermostats, wait, then take a reading. Repeat until you get the right temperature gradient.

    You have some control over the humidity by moving the water bowl and adjusting the lid. If the humidity is too low then move the water bowl off center towards the warm side increasing water temperature and promoting evaporation and therefore humidity. If the humidity is too high then you can enlarge the hole in the plexiglas (difficult) or drill some holes to allow the humidity to escape. Be aware that if you do this you will have take new temperature readings as some adjustment may be necessary.

    Once you are satisfied that your temperature gradient and humidity levels are correct, you can introduce your snake into your completed vivarium! At this point you should leave the snake alone for a week to get used to its new environment before feeding or handling.


    Maintenance and Ongoing Husbandry
    Daily Maintenance (required time, 10-15 minutes)

    You must clean the water bowl and refill it with clean fresh water. Since the water bowl serves as a drinking source for your snake and provides humidity, this needs to be done daily. While doing this, check for mites in the water.

    Check the entire enclosure for snake droppings. Remove when found, including the substrate in that area and replace with fresh. Check in both hides and in the plants and behind and around logs etc.

    Check the operation of both thermostats and the CHE, check all temperatures and the humidity level.


    Major Maintenance (required time, 1-2 hours)

    With a young snake, we find it a good to perform a major cleaning on the vivarium after each shed (every 3-4 weeks). This is a good time for major maintenance as you will have increased the humidity during the shed and increased humidity leads to the danger of bacteria in the enclosure. Once your snake is fully grown and shedding less frequently, switch to a monthly schedule.

    Remove your snake and place it in the plastic tub with some fresh substrate. Make sure the tub is secure by either using office supply binder clips to clip the lid down or use a belt around the entire tub. Place the tub in a warm (not hot!) area. We place the tub on a human heading pad set to Low and check the belly heat temperature with the IR heat gun often to ensure it's not getting too warm. It is also a good time to weigh the snake while it is in the tub.

    Remove all plants, branches, hides, rocks and the water bowl etc. Thoroughly clean and disinfect.

    Remove and discard the substrate (and spagnum moss if there is any in there - see Special Considerations below).

    Remove the repti-carpet. Disinfect and clean very, very thoroughly, this can be a breeding ground for bacteria. It will also take a long time to dry, so hang it up somewhere to do so. You will have another section of repti-carpet ready to use.

    Clean and disinfect the vivarium, including the lid and plexiglas. Allow 30 minutes after cleaning for any fumes to from the disinfectant to clear, then wipe down with clean fresh water and dry.

    Place the fresh repti-carpet back in the vivarium (including positioning the probes), put a fresh layer of substrate in, put everything back in and place the snake back into the vivarium. Note that because you have cleaned everything all the smells are gone or changed, it may take you snake a little while to settle back in.

    (cont'd on next post)
    0.1 ball python (Cleo), 0.1 surinam bcc (Carmen)
    1.0 sunglow motley corn (Jenson), 1.0 albino burmese (Lourdes)
    1.0 cat (Nicky), some mooses and ratters, 1.0 hubby (Rick)

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  7. #4
    BPnet Veteran cassandra's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup...

    Housing and Caring for a Ball Python in a Glass Vivarium
    continued post 4 of 4

    Special considerations
    Shedding

    When you see your snake turn "blue" (dull skin, opaque eyes), it is time to increase the humidity in the vivarium from the normal 60% to 80%. Moisten some spagnum moss and place it around the vivarium; on, in or around the hides is good. Don't worry about being neat with it or placing it in a tub, you'll discard it after the shedding is over with the used substrate from the vivarium.

    Mist the vivarium using the spray bottle. It is recommended that you fill the spray bottle with hot tap water (not boiling, just hot tap water). The misting action quickly cools the water, so if you start with hot water then you will be misting warm water. If you put warm water in the misting bottle then you will be misting cool water, if you put cool water in the misting bottle then you will be misting COLD water. Your snake will appreciate you using hot water in your mister.

    Feeding

    This guide is not the time nor place to discuss the many ways of feeding a snake, however I will describe here how we feed our Ball Python in our vivarium.

    You have a loose substrate base in your vivarium, and if you feed in the vivarium then there is the chance that the food item will pick up some substrate on it's fur, or that your snake will get some substrate in its mouth while feeding. While a small amount of substrate consumed is nothing to worry about, obviously it is better that you snake sticks to eating more rodent and less wood. To accomplish this, we feed as follows.

    Our Ball Python is generally in one of her hides when we come to feed her. We open the vivarium and remove the hide she is not in, and the plants and branches on that side. We then lay a piece of clean cardboard, cut to fit in that side of the vivarium, to cover the substrate. We feed live, but we don't give the mouse any chance to fight back. To do this we hold the mouse by its tail using hemostats (long, blunt medical-type scissors) and hold it at the base of the tail on the cardboard. Being as our Ball Python is a piggy-python, it doesn't take her long to pick up the scent, come over to that side, strike and consume the mouse. We then put the vivarium lid back on and wait until she goes back to her hide to digest her meal. Then we remove the cardboard, and replace the hide and plants we took out. This has proven to be a very easy and successful feeding process.

    - Written by Rick L., aka krynos

    (p.s. 10000 char limit in posts sucks! *wink*)
    0.1 ball python (Cleo), 0.1 surinam bcc (Carmen)
    1.0 sunglow motley corn (Jenson), 1.0 albino burmese (Lourdes)
    1.0 cat (Nicky), some mooses and ratters, 1.0 hubby (Rick)

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  9. #5
    BPnet Veteran cassandra's Avatar
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    Glass tank setup....probe placement drawings!

    I've had a few folks ask me for pictures or drawing of how we place probes in the repti-carpet and/or how we place all four probes from a Herpstat...since I'm a work, here's a quick Illustrator sketch:



    Assuming the tank has a location along the back wall/upper lip to thread a probe cable through, cut the first hole (yellow circle) in the repti-carpet to thread the probe through near the back, about .5" - 1" in, just large enough to thread the probe head through. Cut the second hole where you want the probe to sit (under the hide, under the waterbowl, etc.). The probe may "spin" slightly, depending on the probe wire, probe itself, substrate you put on top and your animal and his or her activity, but it's not going to move off the UTH.

    We use the Herpstat II Pro, which includes 4 probes with independant proportional thermostats. Being that we like overkill, we use all four in our 4' x 2' x 2' cages:



    1: Cool side hide, controlling UTH.

    2: Threaded through decorative cage "background", halfway down back wall, with the probe sticking out into the space of the cage and set for ambient temp; controls CHE, which is positioned above warm side hide (not pictured).

    3: Under water bowl, controlling UTH. We use this to increase ambient humidity. Means we replace the water and disenfect the water bowl more often, but means we don't have to mist everyday nor use a (unsightly) plastic humid hide. This is an adaption from the original glass tank guide we implemented for keeping humidity up in the 4' x 2' x 2' cages.

    4: Warm side hide, controlling UTH.

    Lemme know if you have questions!
    0.1 ball python (Cleo), 0.1 surinam bcc (Carmen)
    1.0 sunglow motley corn (Jenson), 1.0 albino burmese (Lourdes)
    1.0 cat (Nicky), some mooses and ratters, 1.0 hubby (Rick)

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  11. #6
    BPnet Veteran missi182's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup

    This is great although a little long, but still great. My only comment would be that in Canada, you can double most of those prices. For example a bag of sphagnum moss runs about $20 where I live. Bulbs- $8.99-16.99, heat emitters are around $25 for the lamp, $39 for the coil. I shop around online and absolutely anywhere that might have what i need but in Ontario, the prices are all about the same-high.
    1.0 Normal Ball Python- Little Dude
    0.0.1 Albino Kingsnake - Weiner
    Missi

  12. #7
    BPnet Veteran starmom's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup

    Oh thank goodness!~ Such a well-written document that can be so easily accessed!!! Way to go and thanks for taking all of the time with it that you so obviously did!!!


    ~~McKinsey~~
    "Men have forgotten this truth," said the fox. "But you must not forget it. You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed."
    ~The Little Prince; Antoine de Saint Exupery

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    Registered User ALEX B.'s Avatar
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    Thumbs up Re: Glass tank setup

    thats amazing, thanks for putting all the time and effort into that. getting a snake for the first time can be overwhelming and this will help anyone with questions

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    BPnet Veteran Texas Dan's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup

    This looks great, just one comment.

    You provide a decent thermostat for around $30, but use the herpstat. It should be known to new comers that the Herpstat she uses is way more than $30. I got mine on monday and it was $115. That's for a standard one too, I don't know about the pro.

    www.spyderrobotics.com

    Edit: I just re-read your article and you did mention that some T-Stats were on the more expensive side.

    Either way, there's the link to the company that makes the thermostat she uses.
    Last edited by Texas Dan; 02-28-2008 at 12:44 PM.
    1.0.0 Normal BP: Vincent Vega

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    BPnet Veteran starmom's Avatar
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    Re: Glass tank setup

    Quote Originally Posted by missi182 View Post
    This is great although a little long, but still great. My only comment would be that in Canada, you can double most of those prices. For example a bag of sphagnum moss runs about $20 where I live. Bulbs- $8.99-16.99, heat emitters are around $25 for the lamp, $39 for the coil. I shop around online and absolutely anywhere that might have what i need but in Ontario, the prices are all about the same-high.
    Hey Missi~ With the US dollar tanking relative to Canadian currency, you guys ought to be able to get great prices!!


    ~~McKinsey~~
    "Men have forgotten this truth," said the fox. "But you must not forget it. You become responsible, forever, for what you have tamed."
    ~The Little Prince; Antoine de Saint Exupery

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